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Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
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Prince WilliamDuke of Cambridge (more)Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.jpgBorn21 June 1982
London, United KingdomSpouseCatherine Middleton (m.2011)Issue
  • Prince George of Cambridge
  • Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
  • Prince Louis of Cambridge
Full nameWilliam Arthur Philip Louis[fn 1]HouseWindsorFatherCharles, Prince of WalesMotherLady Diana SpencerMilitary careerService/branch
  • British Army
  • Royal Air Force
  • Royal Navy
Yearsof service20062013
(active service)RankSee listUnitBlues and Royals
RAF Search and Rescue Force

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis;[fn 1] born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line of succession to the British throne.

William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile, Belize, and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell, then underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. His service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013.[3][4] He then trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance.

In 2011, Prince William was made Duke of Cambridge and married Catherine Middleton. The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis.

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Early life

Prince William was born at Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 9:03pm on 21 June 1982 as the first child of Charles, Prince of Walesheir apparent to Queen Elizabeth IIand Diana, Princess of Wales.[5][6][7] His names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June.[5] He was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[8][fn 2] He was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905.[10] William's parents affectionately called him "Wombat"[11] or "Wills"a name coined by the press.[12]

Since his birth, William has been second in the line of succession to the British throne.[13] At age seven, he reportedly told his mother he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her; a statement to which his five-year-old brother Harry reportedly replied, "Oh, no you can't. You've got to be King."[14]

William began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age. In 1983, he accompanied them on a tour to Australia and New Zealand,[15] a decision made by Diana. The decision was considered to be unconventional because the first- and second-in-line to the throne would be travelling together, and because of William's young age.[16] His first public appearance was on 1 March 1991Saint David's Dayduring an official visit of his parents to Cardiff. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, showing he is left-handed.[17]

On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club. He suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar.[18] In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice itother times they don't notice it at all".[19]

William's mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children. She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's, as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless, and bought them items typically owned by teenagers, such as video games.[16] Diana, who was by then divorced from Charles, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William, then aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time. The Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death.[20] William accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and his maternal uncle Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, at his mother's funeral; they walked behind the funeral cortege from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey.[21]


William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London.[22] Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham, Berkshire, and was privately tutored during summers by Rory Stewart.[23] At Ludgrove, he participated in football, swimming, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, and cross country running. He sat the entrance exam to Eton College and was admitted. There, he studied Geography, Biology, and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an 'A' in Geography, a 'C' in Biology, and a 'B' in History of Art.[24][25][26] At Eton, he took up water polo and continued to play football, captaining his house team.[27]

Prince William in Paisley in 2009

The decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun, which William's grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton.[16] The royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life. John Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution; nor a soap star; nor a football hero. He is a boy: in the next few years, perhaps the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."[16]

After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize,[28] worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa,[29] and for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile. As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household choresincluding cleaning the toiletand also volunteered as a guest disc jockey at a local radio station.[28] His interest in African culture prompted him to teach himself Swahili.[30]

By 2001, William was back in the United Kingdom and had enrolled at the University of St Andrews.[31][32] News of this caused a temporary increase in the number of applications to St Andrews, mostly from young women who wanted an opportunity to meet him.[33] The extra attention did not deter him; he embarked on a degree course in Art History, later changing his main subject to Geography, and earned a Scottish Master of Arts degree with upper second class honours in 2005.[34][35] While at university, he represented the Scottish national universities water polo team at the Celtic Nations tournament in 2004.[27] He was known as "Steve" by other students to avoid any journalists overhearing and realising his identity.[12]

William returned to St Andrews in February 2011 as patron of the university's 600th Anniversary Appeal.[36]

To prepare for his eventual management of the Duchy of Cornwall, in 2014 William enrolled in a vocational agricultural management course at Cambridge, which was organised by the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership (CPSL), of which his father is patron.[37][38][39] According to a CNN report in 2014, the duchy is "a ?760million (about $1.25billion) entity established in 1337 to provide a private income for use by the reigning monarch's eldest son", which William will inherit when his father becomes king.[37]

Military and air ambulance service

William wearing the uniform of a Flight Lieutenant

Military training and secondments

Having decided to follow a military career, in October 2005 William attended the four-day Regular Commissions Board at Westbury in Wiltshire, where he underwent selection to judge his suitability to become an army officer. He passed selection and was admitted to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 2006.[40] After completing the course, William was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant at Sandhurst on 15 December 2006; the graduation parade was attended by the Queen and the Prince of Wales, along with other members of the Royal Family. William officially received his commission as a lieutenant at midnight. As "Lieutenant Wales"a name based on his father's title Prince of Waleshe followed his younger brother[41] into the Blues and Royals as a troop commander in an armoured reconnaissance unit, after which he spent five months training for the post at Bovington Camp, Dorset.[42]

Though Major-General Sir Sebastian Roberts, General Officer commanding the Household Division, had said William's deployment was possible, the Prince's position as second-in-line to the throne and the convention of ministers advising against placing that person into dangerous situations cast doubts on William's chances of seeing combat. These doubts increased after Prince Harry's deployment was cancelled in 2007 due to "specific threats". William, instead, went on to train in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, obtaining his commission as a sub-lieutenant in the former and flying officer in the latterboth broadly equivalent to the army rank of lieutenant. After completing his training, William undertook an attachment with the Royal Air Force, undergoing an intensive, four-month training course at RAF Cranwell.[43][44] Upon completing the course on 11 April 2008, he was presented with his RAF wings by his father,[45] who had received his own wings after training at Cranwell.[46] During this secondment, William flew to Afghanistan in a C-17 Globemaster that repatriated the body of Trooper Robert Pearson.[47]

William was then seconded to train with the Royal Navy from June to August 2008, during which he spent three weeks at the Britannia Royal Naval College training on units of the surface fleet and submarines, as well as with the Fleet Air Arm and the Royal Marines.[48] He spent a day on submarine HMS Talent.[49] During a five-week deployment on HMS Iron Duke in the Caribbean, he took part in a joint operation with the United States Coast Guard that identified and captured a speedboat carrying 900kg (2,000lb) of cocaine worth about ?40million.[50][51] The ship also took part in other raids.[52]

Because of William's future royal role, a long-term career in the military was considered out of the question; due to his position, his desire to see active service was unlikely to be fulfilled. William originally joined the military on a short-service commission lasting three years. It was announced in September 2008, however, that he would be extending his forces career in 2008 by accepting another secondment that included working at the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and non-operational flying with the Army Air Corps.[53] It was later announced that he would transfer from the Army to the RAF to train as a full-time search and rescue helicopter pilot.[54]

Royal Air Force service

Sea King helicopter being flown by William in 2010

In January 2009, William transferred his commission to the RAF and was promoted to Flight Lieutenant. He trained to become a helicopter pilot with the RAF's Search and Rescue Force. In January 2010, he graduated from the Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury, where he had been under the instruction of Squadron Leader Craig Finch.[55] On 26 January 2010, he transferred to the Search and Rescue Training Unit at RAF Valley, Anglesey, to receive training on the Sea King search and rescue helicopter; he graduated from this course on 17 September 2010.[56] This made him the first member of the British royal family since Henry VII to live in Wales.[57]

It was announced on 15 April 2010 that William would remain at RAF Valley for his operational tour; he was assigned to C Flight No. 22 Squadron[58] and initially performed co-pilot duties.[59] His operational tour was expected to last 30 to 36 months.[60]

Sea King helicopter flown by Prince William on display at the RAF Museum in London

William's first rescue mission as co-pilot of an RAF Sea King was a response to an emergency call from the Liverpool Coastguard on 2 October 2010. Williamwho was excited to take part in an active missionand the other three crew members, flew from their base at RAF Valley to an offshore gas rig in Morecambe Bay, from where a man who had suffered a suspected heart attack was airlifted to hospital.[61] In November 2011, he participated in a search-and-rescue mission involving a cargo ship that was sinking in the Irish Sea; William, as a co-pilot, helped rescue two sailors.[62]

William was deployed to the Falkland Islands for a six-week tour with No. 1564 Flight from February to March 2012.[63][64] The Argentine government condemned the Duke's deployment to the islands close to the 30th anniversary of the beginning of the Falklands War as a "provocative act".[65][66]

In June 2012 Prince William gained a qualification to be captain or pilot in command of a Sea King rather than a co-pilot.[67] His active service as an RAF search-and-rescue pilot ended in September 2013.[3][4]

Air ambulance pilot

In 2014, it was announced that William would accept a full-time role as a pilot with the East Anglian Air Ambulance (EAAA) based at Cambridge Airport. Despite his qualifications as a military helicopter pilot, William needed a civil pilot's licence and further training before being permitted to take command of the Air Ambulance. Although his position was paid, Kensington Palace announced that William would donate his full salary to the EAAA charity.[68] He underwent part of his training as an EAAA pilot at Norwich Airport.[69] On 13 July 2015, William started his new job, which he felt was a natural progression from his previous role as an RAF search-and-rescue pilot.[70] He left his position with EAAA in July 2017 to assume a more active role in royal duties on behalf of his grandmother the Queen.[71]

Royal duties

See also: List of official overseas trips made by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Upon graduation from university, William began to undertake his own public duties and privately obtained work experience by interning in land management at Chatsworth House and in banking at HSBC.[16]

At the age of 21, Prince William was appointed as a Counsellor of State; he first served in that capacity when the Queen was in Nigeria attending the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 2003. For his 21st birthday, William accompanied his father on a tour of Wales, visiting the Anglesey Food Fair and opening a centre for the homeless in Newport.[72] By July 2005, he embarked on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand, to participate in World War II commemorations on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of New Zealand. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were interviewed together for the first time by television personalities Ant & Dec.[72]

According to Tina Brown in her 2007 biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, William had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia.[73] Prime Minister of Australia John Howard said, "We have for a long time embraced the idea that the person who occupies that post should be in every way an Australian citizen".[74]

In 2009, the Queen set up a private office for William with Sir David Manning as his adviser.[75] Manning accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington on behalf of the Queen; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed by a Maori chief.[76] William succeeded Lord Attenborough in 2010 as the fifth president of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.[77]

In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, shortly after the earthquake,[78] and spoke at the memorial service at Hagley Park on behalf of his grandmother.[79] Upon leaving New Zealand, he travelled to Australia to visit areas affected by flooding in Queensland and Victoria.[80][81] After twice accompanying his parents to Canada, Prince William and his wife toured the country in June and July 2011; they visited the United States and attended Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill.[82][83] On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre in Copenhagen, Denmark, which supplies food to malnourished African children.[84][85] In September 2012, they toured Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu, and the Solomon Islands as part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations.[86]

In April 2014, the Duke and Duchess undertook a royal tour to New Zealand and Australia. From 2021 September, William took his wife's place on a tour of Malta to mark the 50th anniversary of the island's independence from the United Kingdom.[87] On 21 October, the Duke and Duchess met the President of Singapore, Tony Tan, during his state visit to the UK.[88]

In December 2014, the Duke met US President Barack Obama in the Oval Office, and subsequently made a speech at the World Bank in Washington, D. C., condemning the illegal trade in wildlife.[89]

In 2015, Prince William visited the Chinese cities Beijing, Shanghai, and Yunnan from 1 to 4 March. Chinese President Xi Jinping welcomed him as he began the first visit to mainland China by a member of the British royal family in almost three decades.[90]

William and the mayor of Tel Aviv, Ron Huldai, in Israel, June 2018

In June 2018, Prince William visited Israel and Palestine, being the first British royal to visit the area officially since the expiry of the British Mandate. He visited Tel Aviv, meeting with mayor Ron Huldai and touring the beach area and city centre; Jerusalem, meeting with President Reuven Rivlin and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu; and Ramallah, meeting with Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas.[91]

Patronages and interests

Humanitarian and environmental patronages

William became aware of HIV/AIDS in the mid-1990s when he accompanied his mother and brother on visits to shelters and clinics for sufferers. In January 2005, William and his brother volunteered at a British Red Cross aid distribution centre to pack emergency supplies for countries affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami.[92] In September that year, William granted his patronage to Centrepoint, a charity that assists the homeless.[93][94]

In 2005, William worked in the children's unit at The Royal Marsden Hospital for two days of work experience; he also assisted in the medical research, catering, and fundraising departments.[93] In May that year, he spent two weeks in North Wales with a mountain rescue team.[92] In May 2007, William became patron of both organisationshis mother had also been patron of the Royal Marsden Hospitaland he became attracted to Mountain Rescue England and Wales to "highlight and celebrate the vital, selfless and courageous work of our mountain rescue organisations".[93]

Prince William also became a patron of the Tusk Trust in December 2005,[93] a charity that works towards conserving wildlife and initiating community development, including providing education, across Africa.[95] He became associated with the organisation after he witnessed its work first hand in Africa. Saying "rural African initiatives that foster education, responsibility and participation in the local community light the way to conservation",[96] he carried out his first official duty with the trust in launching a 5,000-mile (8,000km) bike ride across the African continent in 2007. In 2010, he also became a patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds Philanthropic Initiatives.[97]

In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who wanted to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities instead.[98] The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple's choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflected the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.[99][100][101][102][103]


William plays polo to raise money for charity, is a fan of football, and supports the English club Aston Villa.[104] He became President of England's Football Association in May 2006 and vice-royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) in February 2007, supporting the Queen as patron.[93] The same year, the WRU's decision to name a new cup for test matches between Wales and South Africa the Prince William Cup caused controversy; some believed it would have been more appropriate to name it after Ray Gravell.[105][106][107]

In 2006, William, along with other Sandhurst officers, took part in a one-mile (1.6km) run to support the charity Sport Relief, as he had done in 2004 with a team from Clarence House. In May 2007, William became patron of the English Schools' Swimming Association.[93] In 2013, he succeeded his grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, as president of the UK charity Fields in Trust.[108]

In December 2010, William and Prime Minister David Cameron attended a meeting with FIFA vice-president Chung Mong-joon at which Chung suggested a vote-trading deal for the right to host the 2018 World Cup in England. The English delegation reported the suggestion to FIFA's ethics investigator because they considered vote-swapping to be a violation of anti-collusion rules.[109][110]

Both William and his brother are enthusiastic motorcyclists; William owns a Ducati 1198 S Corse.[111]

In May 2014, William, like his father and paternal grandfather, became president of the British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC).[112] He enthusiastically took part in a bandy event in Stockholm in January 2018.[113]

Personal life


William's private life became a subject of tabloid speculation, especially around his relationship with Catherine Middleton, one of William's university flatmates whom William began dating in 2003. Middleton attended William's passing-out parade at Sandhurst, which was the first high-profile event that she attended as his guest. Their relationship was followed so closely that bookmakers took bets on the possibility of marriage and the retail chain Woolworths produced memorabilia bearing the likenesses of the couple.[114] Media attention became so intense that William formally asked the press to keep their distance from Middleton.[114]

It was reported in April 2007 that the couple had split up,[114] but they resumed their relationship a few months later.[115]

Marriage and children

Main article: Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge at the official Canada Day celebration in Ottawa, 2011, during their first tour outside the United Kingdom.

On 16 November 2010, Clarence House announced that Prince William and Middleton were to marry; the couple had become engaged in Kenya in October.[116] The engagement ring given by William to Catherine had belonged to his mother.

The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in Westminster Abbey, London.[117] A few hours before the ceremony, William's new titles Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced.[118][119][120][121]

His wife's first pregnancy was announced on 3 December 2012.[122] She was admitted on 22 July 2013 to the Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, where Prince William had been delivered. Later that day, she gave birth to Prince George.[123][124] On 8 September 2014, it was announced that the Duchess of Cambridge was pregnant with her second child.[125] She was admitted on 2 May 2015 to the same hospital and gave birth to Princess Charlotte.[126] The Duchess's third pregnancy was announced on 4 September 2017;[127] Prince Louis was born on 23 April 2018.[128]

In March 2017, a video of William dancing with an unidentified woman at a nightclub in Verbier, Switzerland, surfaced in the media.[129] At the time, he was on a skiing holiday with his friends.[130] The press criticised William's behaviour because he had failed to attend the Commonwealth Day service at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by other senior members of the royal family.[129]

Privacy and the media

The death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in Paris while being chased by paparazzi in 1997,[131] influenced the Duke's attitude towards the media.[132] The Duke and his wife have asked that, when off-duty, their privacy should be respected.[132]

In September 2012, the French edition of Closer and the Italian gossip magazine Chi, published photographs of the Duchess of Cambridge sun-bathing topless while on holiday at the Chateau d'Autet[132] (a private chateau on a 260-ha estate 71km[133] north of Aix-en-Provence). Analysts from The Times believed the photographs were taken from the D22 (Vaucluse) road half a kilometre from the poola distance that would require an 800-mm or a 1000-mm lens.[134] On 17 September 2012, the Duke and Duchess filed a criminal complaint with the French prosecution department and launched a claim for civil damages at the Tribunal de Grande Instance de Nanterre.[135] The following day the courts granted an injunction against Closer prohibiting further publication of the photographs and announced a criminal investigation would be initiated.[136] Under French law, punitive damages cannot be awarded[137] but intrusions of privacy are a criminal offence carrying a maximum jail sentence of one year and a fine of up to 45,000 for individuals and 225,000 for companies.[138][139] In September 2017, Closer was fined 100,000 and its editor Laurence Pieau and owner Ernesto Mauri were each fined 45,000.[140]

On 14 August 2015, Kensington Palace published a letter detailing what it stated were the "dangerous" and invasive efforts of the media to get paparazzi pictures of Prince George and Princess Charlotte. Jason Knauf, communications secretary to the Cambridges, wrote the letter to media standards organisations in various countries.[141]

Titles, styles, honours, and arms

Titles and styles

  • 19822011: His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales
  • 2011present: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge
    • In Scotland: His Royal Highness The Earl of Strathearn[142][143][144]
    • In Northern Ireland: Baron Carrickfergus[145][146]

The hereditary titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced on 29 April 2011 and formally patented on 26 May that year.[118][fn 3] William is a Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG),[148] a Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT),[142] a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom (PC), and a Personal Aide-de-Camp (ADC) to the Queen.[149]

As a British prince, William does not use a surname for everyday purposes. For formal and ceremonial purposes, children of the Prince of Wales use the title "prince" or "princess" before their forename and follow it with their father's territorial designation. Thus, before his marriage, Prince William was styled "Prince William of Wales". Such territorial designations are discarded by women when they marry and by men if they are given a peerage of their own,[150] such as when Prince William was given his dukedom.

Although the name of the Royal House is Windsor, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor belongs to all the children and male-line descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, and is used, if needed, by those who do not have the style of Royal Highness and the title Prince or Princess;[151] when a female descendant marries, she traditionally takes her husband's surname from that point onward, and their children take their father's.

Both Princes William and Harry used Wales as their surname for military purposes; this continues to be the case for William since his creation as Duke of Cambridge.[152]

Military ranks

United Kingdom
  • United Kingdom
    • 8 January 2006: Officer cadet[153]
    • 16 December 2006: Cornet (Second Lieutenant), The Blues and Royals (short service commission)[154]
    • 16 December 2006: Lieutenant, The Blues and Royals[154]
    • 1 January 2009: Captain, The Blues and Royals (and transferred to a full regular commission)[155]
    • 1 January 2016: Major, British Army[156]
  • United Kingdom
    • 1 January 2008: Sub-lieutenant, Royal Navy[157]
    • 1 January 2009: Lieutenant, Royal Navy[158]
    • 1 January 2016: Lieutenant Commander, Royal Navy[159]
  • United Kingdom
    • 1 January 2008: Flying Officer, Royal Air Force[160]
    • 1 January 2009: Flight Lieutenant, Royal Air Force[161]
    • 1 January 2016: Squadron Leader, Royal Air Force[162][163]


See also: List of honours of the British Royal Family by country Accompanied by his father, Prince William proceeds to St George's Chapel, Windsor to be installed as a Knight of the Garter.

Prince William is the 1,000th member of the register of the Order of the Garter,[164] and was officially invested by the Queen on 16 June 2008 at a service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[165] The last time a monarch appointed a grandchild into the Order of the Garter was in 1894, when Queen Victoria invested Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

  • 23 April 2008: Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG)[166]
  • 25 May 2012: Extra Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT)[167][168][169]


  • 6 February 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
  • 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal

Commonwealth honours

  • Tuvalu 1 October 2016: Tuvalu Order of Merit[170]


  • Since 6 July 2009: Honorary Bencher of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple.[171]
  • Since 23 June 2010: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)[172]
  • 17 March 2013: Personal Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty The Queen (ADC)[149]
  • 9 June 2016: Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council (PC)[173]
  • Since 1 March 2017: Royal Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (HonFRSE)[174]
  • Since 17 January 2018: Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (FRSM)[175]

Honorary military appointments

Canada Canada
  • Canada 10 November 2009: Canadian Ranger[176]
United Kingdom United Kingdom
  • United Kingdom Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of the Royal Navy Submarine Service
  • United Kingdom Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of Scotland[177]
  • United Kingdom Since 3 October 2008: Honorary Air Commandant of RAF Coningsby[178]
  • United Kingdom Since 10 February 2011: Colonel of the Irish Guards[179][180]


  • Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario[181][182]
  • Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's Parks Canada Youth Ambassadors Program[183]
  • Duke of Cambridge Public School, Bowmanville, Ontario[184]


Coat of arms of the Duke of Cambridge Coat of Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge.svg Notes Prince William was granted a personal coat of arms on his 18th birthday. It is based on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, with a white (or silver) label with three points, the centre point bearing a red clam shell (an "escallop"), to distinguish it from the arms of other members of the Royal Family. The escallop is drawn from the Spencer coat of arms, a reference to his mother, who was the daughter of the Earl Spencer.[185] Adopted 21 June 2000 Helm Upon a coronet of the children of the Heir Apparent, the royal helm Or Escutcheon Quarterly: 1st and 4th, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (England); 2nd, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules (Scotland); 3rd, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (Ireland). Supporters Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patee and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or. Orders The Order of the Garter ribbon.
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it) Other elements The whole distinguished by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an escallop Gules. Banner Royal Standard of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.svg The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom labelled for difference as in his arms. (In Scotland: Royal Standard of Prince William, Earl of Strathearn.svg) Symbolism As the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, Prince William's coat of arms has a label of three points.[186] The escallop (seashell) alludes to his late mother Diana, Princess of Wales, whose Spencer coat of arms includes three escallops Argent.

In September 2013, the Queen granted to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge a conjugal coat of arms consisting of their individual arms displayed side-by-side beneath a helm and coronet denoting the Duke's status as grandson of the Sovereign.[187]

Personal flag for Canada

Main article: Royal standards of Canada Flag of the Duke of Cambridge for personal use in Canada

In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic flag for the Duke of Cambridge's use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded with a wreath of gold maple leaves and shells within which is a depiction of a "W" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, charged with a red shell.[188][189][190]


Prince William is a member of the House of Windsor. Patrilineally, he descends from the House of Oldenburg, one of Europe's oldest royal houses; and more specifically the cadet branch known as the House of Glucksburg.[191]

Through his mother, William descends from the Earls Spencera cadet branch of the Spencer family descended from the Earls of Sunderland; the senior branch are now also Dukes of Marlborough; the Barons Fermoy; and more anciently from Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmondtwo illegitimate sons of King Charles II. As king, William would be the first monarch since Anne to descend from Charles I and the first to descend from Charles II.[192][193]

William descends matrilineally from Eliza Kewark, a housekeeper for his eighteenth-century ancestor Theodore Forbesa Scottish merchant who worked for the East India Company in Surat. She is variously described in contemporary documents as "a dark-skinned native woman", "an Armenian woman from Bombay", and "Mrs. Forbesian".[193] Genealogist William Addams Reitwiesner assumed Kewark was Armenian.[194] In June 2013, BritainsDNA announced that genealogical DNA tests on two of William's distant matrilineal cousins confirm Kewark was matrilineally of Indian descent.[192][195][196][197]

.mw-parser-output table.ahnentafel{border-collapse:separate;border-spacing:0;line-height:130%}.mw-parser-output .ahnentafel tr{text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .ahnentafel-t{border-top:#000 solid 1px;border-left:#000 solid 1px}.mw-parser-output .ahnentafel-b{border-bottom:#000 solid 1px;border-left:#000 solid 1px}Ancestors of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge 8. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark 4. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark 9. Princess Alice of Battenberg 2. Charles, Prince of Wales 10. George VI of the United Kingdom 5. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 11. Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon 1. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge 12. Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer 6. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer 13. Lady Cynthia Hamilton 3. Lady Diana Spencer 14. Maurice Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy 7. The Honourable Frances Roche 15. Ruth Gill

See also

  • Royal William, a German red rose named after Prince William shortly after his birth


^ a b As a member of the Royal Family entitled to be called His Royal Highness, William does not normally use a surname. He has used both Mountbatten-Windsor,[1] and at university and in his military career Wales.[2] According to letters patent of February 1960, his house and family name is Windsor. The middle name Louis is pronounced /?lu?i/. ^ William had six godparents: former King Constantine II of Greece (his paternal second cousin once removed); Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Mrs Ogilvy (his paternal first cousin twice removed); the Duchess of Westminster; Lady Susan Hussey; Lord Romsey (his paternal second cousin once removed); and Sir Laurens van der Post.[5][9] ^ The Letters Patent formalising these titles were signed and passed under the Great Seal on 26 May 2011.[147]


^ Lichfield, John (19 September 2012). "William and Kate win legal battle but lose war to keep topless photos under wraps". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} ^ "Duke of Cambridge to deploy to Falklands". 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Although Eliza Kewark was indeed thought of as Armenian, it's not particularly surprising that she would have had Indian ancestors; the Armenian diaspora had been in India for centuries at the time of her birth, and even the most insular communities tend to experience genetic mixing over that timescale.

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  • Campbell, Alastair (29 May 2017). "Prince William on Diana, Princess of Wales". GQ (British ed.). Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  • Hedges, Mark (21 November 2018). "The Duke of Cambridge on the countryside, wildlife and passing on his father's inspiring example to George, Charlotte and Louis". Country Life.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge House of WindsorBorn: 21 June 1982 Lines of succession Precededby
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  • The Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of Scotland
  • The Duke of Argyll, Master of the Household in Scotland
Northern Ireland
  • Lords Lieutenant of counties and cities
  • High sheriffs of counties
  • Richard Clarke, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland)
  • Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh (Roman Catholic)
  • Diarmuid Martin, Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic)
  • Michael Jackson, Archbishop of Dublin (Church of Ireland)
  • Charles McMullen, Moderator of the Presbyterian Church
  • Lord Mayor of Belfast and Mayors of boroughs in Northern Ireland
  • Robert Buckland, Lord High Chancellor
  • John Bercow, Commons Speaker
  • The Lord Fowler, Lord Speaker
  • The Marquess of Cholmondeley, Lord Great Chamberlain
  • The Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal
  • The Earl of Dalhousie, Lord Steward
  • The Earl Peel, Lord Chamberlain
  • The Lord de Mauley, Master of the Horse
not including short-term appointments, visiting dignitaries and most peers
  • v
  • t
  • e
British princesThe generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family.1st generation
  • King George II
2nd generation
  • Frederick, Prince of Wales
  • Prince George William
  • Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
3rd generation
  • King George III
  • Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany
  • Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
  • Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn
  • Prince Frederick
4th generation
  • King George IV
  • Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
  • King William IV
  • Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
  • King Ernest Augustus of Hanover
  • Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
  • Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
  • Prince Octavius
  • Prince Alfred
  • Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
5th generation
  • Prince Albert1
  • King George V of Hanover
  • Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
6th generation
  • King Edward VII
  • Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
  • Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
  • Prince Ernest Augustus
7th generation
  • Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale
  • King George V
  • Prince Alexander John of Wales
  • Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • Prince Arthur of Connaught
  • Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • Prince George William of Hanover
  • Prince Christian of Hanover
  • Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
8th generation
  • King Edward VIII
  • King George VI
  • Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
  • Prince George, Duke of Kent
  • Prince John
  • Alastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
  • Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover
  • Prince George William of Hanover
9th generation
  • Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2
  • Prince William of Gloucester
  • Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
  • Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
  • Prince Michael of Kent
10th generation
  • Charles, Prince of Wales
  • Prince Andrew, Duke of York
  • Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
11th generation
  • Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
  • Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex
  • James, Viscount Severn3
12th generation
  • Prince George of Cambridge
  • Prince Louis of Cambridge
1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see his article.
  • v
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  • e
Dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland*Royal dukes
  • Cornwall and Rothesay
  • Gloucester
  • Kent
  • Edinburgh
  • York
  • Cambridge
  • Sussex
Coronet of a British Duke.svgEngland Kingdom of England
  • 18th Duke of Norfolk
  • 19th Duke of Somerset
  • 11th Duke of Richmond
  • 12th Duke of Grafton
  • 12th Duke of Beaufort
  • 14th Duke of St Albans
  • 15th Duke of Bedford
  • 12th Duke of Devonshire
  • 12th Duke of Marlborough
  • 11th Duke of Rutland
Scotland Kingdom of Scotland
  • 16th Duke of Hamilton
  • 10th Duke of Buccleuch
  • 11th Duke of Lennox
  • 12th Duke of Queensberry
  • 13th Duke of Argyll
  • 12th Duke of Atholl
  • 8th Duke of Montrose
  • 11th Duke of Roxburghe
Great Britain Kingdom of Great Britain
  • 13th Duke of Brandon
  • 13th Duke of Manchester
  • 12th Duke of Northumberland
Ireland Kingdom of IrelandPre-1801
  • 9th Duke of Leinster
  • 5th Duke of Abercorn
United Kingdom United Kingdom
  • 9th Duke of Wellington
  • 7th Duke of Sutherland
  • 7th Duke of Westminster
  • 6th Duke of Gordon
  • 6th Duke of Argyll
  • 4th Duke of Fife
* Current title holders, listed by date of creation, from earliest to most recent
Italics indicate the titleholder also holds a previously listed dukedom of greater precedence
  • v
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  • e
Dukes of Cambridge
  • Charles (16601661; only styled)
  • James (16641667)
  • Edgar (16671671)
  • Charles (16771677; only styled)
  • George (17061727)
  • Adolphus (18011850)
  • George (18501904)
  • William (2011present)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Earls or Mormaers of Strathearn[Known] earls from Strathearn line
  • Malise I
  • Ferteth
  • Gille-Brigte
  • Robert
  • Malise II
  • Malise III
  • Malise IV
  • Malise V
Earls from Moray line
  • Maurice de Moravia
Earls from the Stewart and Graham line
  • Robert Stewart
  • David Stewart
  • Euphemia Stewart
  • Malise Graham
  • Walter Stewart
Earls from Windsor line
  • Prince William
  • v
  • t
  • e
Members of the Order of the GarterEx officio
  • The Queen
  • The Prince of Wales
Arms of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.svgKnights and Ladies
  • The Lord Bramall
  • The Lord Sainsbury of Preston Candover
  • The Lord Ashburton
  • Sir Timothy Colman
  • The Duke of Abercorn
  • The Lord Inge
  • Sir Antony Acland
  • The Lord Butler of Brockwell
  • The Lord Morris of Aberavon
  • Sir John Major
  • The Lord Luce
  • Sir Thomas Dunne
  • The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers
  • The Lord Boyce
  • The Lord Stirrup
  • The Baroness Manningham-Buller
  • The Lord King of Lothbury
  • The Lord Shuttleworth
  • Sir David Brewer
  • Lady Mary Fagan
  • The Viscount Brookeborough
  • Lady Mary Peters
  • The Marquess of Salisbury
  • One vacancy
Royal Knights
and Ladies
  • The Duke of Edinburgh
  • The Duke of Kent
  • The Princess Royal
  • The Duke of Gloucester
  • Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
  • The Duke of York
  • The Earl of Wessex
  • The Duke of Cambridge
Stranger Knights
and Ladies
  • The Queen of Denmark
  • The King of Sweden
  • King Juan Carlos I of Spain
  • Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands
  • The Emperor Emeritus of Japan
  • The King of Norway
  • The King of Spain
  • The King of the Netherlands
  • The Bishop of Winchester (Prelate)
  • The Duke of Abercorn (Chancellor)
  • The Dean of Windsor (Registrar)
  • Thomas Woodcock (Garter Principal King of Arms)
  • The Clarenceux King of Arms (Secretary)
  • Sarah Clarke (Black Rod)
  • v
  • t
  • e
The Football AssociationFounder members
  • Barnes
  • Blackheath
  • Blackheath Proprietary School
  • HM Civil Service
  • Crusaders
  • Crystal Palace
  • Kensington School
  • Leytonstone Forest
  • No Names Club
  • Perceval House
  • Surbiton
  • Arthur Pember
  • Ebenezer Morley
  • Francis Marindin
  • Arthur Kinnaird
  • Charles Clegg
  • William Pickford
  • The Earl of Athlone
  • HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
  • HRH The Duke of Gloucester
  • The Earl of Harewood
  • HRH The Duke of Kent
  • HRH The Duke of York
  • HRH The Duke of Cambridge
  • Charles Clegg
  • A. G. Hines
  • M. Frowde
  • Amos Brook Hirst
  • Arthur Drewry
  • Graham Doggart
  • Joe Mears
  • Andrew Stephen
  • Harold Warris Thompson
  • Bert Millichip
  • Keith Wiseman
  • Geoff Thompson
  • Lord Triesman
  • David Bernstein
  • Greg Dyke
  • Greg Clarke
  • Ebenezer Morley
  • Robert Willis
  • Robert Graham
  • Charles W. Alcock
  • Frederick Wall
  • Stanley Rous
  • Denis Follows
  • Ted Croker
Chief Executives
  • Graham Kelly
  • Adam Crozier
  • Mark Palios
  • David Davies
  • Brian Barwick
  • Ian Watmore
  • Martin Glenn
  • v
  • t
  • e
Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2009Fellows
  • Robert Ainsworth
  • Ross J. Anderson
  • Michael Ashfold
  • Michael Batty
  • Martin Buck
  • Peter Buneman
  • Michel Chretien
  • Jenny Clack
  • Michael Duff
  • Richard Ellis
  • Jeff Ellis
  • James Gimzewski
  • David Glover
  • Chris Goodnow
  • Wendy Hall
  • Nicholas Harberd
  • John Hardy
  • Brian Hemmings
  • Christine Holt
  • Christopher Hunter
  • Graham Hutchings
  • Peter Isaacson
  • Jonathan Keating
  • Dimitris Kioussis
  • Stephen Larter
  • David Leigh
  • David MacKay
  • Arthur B. McDonald
  • Angela McLean
  • David Owen
  • Richard Passingham
  • Guy Richardson
  • Wolfram Schultz
  • Keith Shine
  • Henning Sirringhaus
  • Maurice Skolnick
  • Karen Steel
  • Malcolm Stevens
  • Jesper Svejstrup
  • Jonathan Tennyson
  • John Todd
  • Burt Totaro
  • John Vederas
  • John Wood
  • John Holdren
  • H. Robert Horvitz
  • Thomas Kailath
  • Roger D. Kornberg
  • Yakov Sinai
  • Joseph Stiglitz
  • Rashid Sunyaev
  • Steven D. Tanksley
  • Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
  • BNF: cb13513638q (data)
  • GND: 120920883
  • ISNI: 0000 0003 6764 8998
  • LCCN: n83035580
  • NKC: jn20000701970
  • NLA: 49861308
  • NLI: 004761364
  • SUDOC: 050444875
  • Trove: 1526979
  • VIAF: 232263808
  • WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 232263808
Retrieved from ",_Duke_of_Cambridge&oldid=924594420"
prince william study
Prince William to study at Cambridge

Prince William is to become a full-time student at Cambridge University next month.

Kensington Palace confirmed that the Duke of Cambridge has enrolled in a ten-week management course to prepare him for his future role as Duchy of Cornwall.

During the course, the prince will learn about issues surrounding the UK's rural communities and the farming industry.

The Duchy of Cornwall is inherited by the eldest son of the reigning monarch, and includes a portfolio of land, property and other investments.

Prince William will take over the role if and when his father Prince Charles becomes king.

A Kensington Palace spokesman said that William is "very much looking forward to it".

The course is run by the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership (CPSL), an institution at Cambridge University's School of Technology, where the Prince of Wales is a patron.

Dominic Lipinski/PA Wire

Yui Mok

The Kensington Palace spokesman said: "The executive education programme of seminars, lectures and meetings will draw on the strengths of academics across the university. It will start in early January and run until mid-March.

"The course has been designed to help provide the duke with an understanding of contemporary issues affecting agricultural business and rural communities in the United Kingdom."

Prince William will undertake 18 to 20 hours of lectures, seminars and other meetings each week, and will also complete essays and attend field trips.

He will live in Cambridge during his studies, but will also carry out several royal engagements.

Photo gallery - Prince William in pictures:Showbiz: Prince William turns 30

prince william study

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