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#81 Natural Action Bruce Lee

Bruce Lee referred to Natural Action in different ways. He would write about spontaneous action or naturalism or used a Taoist term wu wei which means non-action or non-doing.

From Wikipedia: Wu Wei In the Tao Te Ching, Lao Tzu explains that beings (or phenomena) that are wholly in harmony with the Tao behave in a completely natural, uncontrived way. The goal of spiritual practice for the human being is, according to Lao Tzu, the attainment of this purely natural way of behaving, as when the planets revolve around the sun.

This grand, celestial action of the planets, the sun, stars, moons; it is a concert of beauty and movement happening naturally with no force or effort.

The idea of natural action is action in ones life without forcing. Bruce talked frequently about the Tao, and a nice synonym for the Tao is nature or the natural world. Bruce Lee talked often about not being in opposition to nature.

Our culture is mind-heavy. We are always trying to hack, force, speed up this natural action. Sometimes we can lose sight of our naturalness as human beings.

Bruce Lee talked about willpower and being a self-willed man, which is about applying some force and effort into your journey. But this was in the context of naturalness, it is not just forcing your way through life. Natural action allows you to gather information to see what works and what does not, revealing a natural path to take towards your purpose. Bruces whole concept of being like water is about natural action, being in flow, flowing around obstacles.

Natural Action, or Wu Wei, is described as non-action, but this does not mean no action.

Non-action does not mean no action, but no such action as begets opposition. Right action is neither to oppose nor to give way, but to be pliable, as a reed in the wind.

It is true that lifes circumstances can toss us around, we can get really mentally busy, and we can blindly engage without sensing the environment around us or without knowing who we really are. Lets tune in more to our environment, and ourselves, and let those cues help guide us.

Pay attention to what your body tells you. Our bodies are the number one indicator that we are not following natural action. The body will become tense and tight in response to unnatural pressure.

Our world tells us to ignore what our body is telling us and/or tells us to overcome what our bodies are saying. For example, staying at a job that makes you sad or depressed because society says you need this particular job. Our minds will go through great lengths to rationalize and justify actions despite what our bodies tell us. Our bodies will initially give us feedback in subtle ways, but often we dont listen until our body escalates to a more extreme reaction.

Bruce Lee would talks a lot in his writings about the difference between the rational, thinking mind and the deep mind. The deep mind is the feeling mind that is in tune with the heart, the body, and the soul. It is the opposite of the calculating mind.

Trust and listen to your intuition. Do not let your mind rationalize away a bad feeling. Try not to compartmentalize your life; this takes away from the naturalness of your life. Since we are human, we will want to have goals and make plans, to take action. The goal is to calibrate the naturalness with our efforts and actions.

Bruce Lee ignites the feeling of a naturally occurring phenomenon, beautiful and in flow. But he was not always that way because he was a person. There were times where he would not listen to his natural way. Bruce was a growing and evolving human being, and wrote extensively about learning from mistakes, which means even Bruce Lee made mistakes.

When Bruce was a kid living in Hong Kong he was getting into fights. He had this innate energy in him and he wanted to explore and push those boundaries. Bruce wanted to tap that energy and use it aggressively, but he had no direction, no container. He was getting into fights, people were getting hurt, and his teacher was sending him home from class. Bruce had to learn how to cultivate his energy and harness it.

You are not in an independent position, but rather you are acting as an assistant. It is not your task to try to lead, that would only make you lose the Way, but to let yourself be led. The superior person lets himself be guided; do not go ahead blindly but learn from the situation what is demanded of you and then follow.

A good test is when we have a decision or a question, what is the feeling in our chest, in our heart? Is it a feeling of skipping towards that decision or answer with ease? Or do you feel that you are forcing yourself to march forward? From time to time, we do have to force ourselves to do things, such as getting out of bed in the morning, but if you are grounded in your life then you can still achieve flow throughout your day.

When Bruce was in Hollywood, he had the goal of wanting to show the world the beauty of his culture and his art in a big way in Hollywood where it was not being done. This was a huge goal. He started it initially by being in the system, getting roles, writing treatments, trying to convince people to make his ideas, and doing everything he could to try to break Asians out of the stereotypical, racist portrayals. The natural state of Hollywood at the time was not going to allow Bruce to achieve this goal, so he had to find another way. Bruce had to find another, more natural route to his goal since all this efforting on his part was yielding nothing. So that is when he decided to go to Hong Kong where there were no barriers to an Asian actor being the lead actor. There, Bruce was able to write, direct, and star in his own projects. Bruce was able to execute his creativity and ideas in a place where it was more accepted, and was able to do it at such a high level because his ideas were good, and his artistry and mastery were superb. He took his learnings from Hollywood, and implemented them in Hong Kong, creating his won production company. This is when Hollywood finally noticed Bruce Lee.

Bruce Lees natural action was always towards innovation and weaving east and west together.

Support all things in their natural stage and allow them to transform.

Bruce Lee was able to achieve so much so fast because he was so attuned to listen to his body and feelings. As soon as he started feeling that something was not right, he was able to shift and pivot. Many of us waste days, years, even our lives, not hearing and not shifting because we are in fear.

Naturalness is expressed in producing and rearing things without taking possession of them and doing work but not taking pride in it. In this way, the natural way can stand in compliment to all artificial ways.

We can exert our effort without using the effort to satisfy our ego. As you level up, you can let the past go as you move forward. In this way you can combine your will with nature.

Take Action:

Where in life can you go with the grain more and follow the unfolding of things rather than force your way in opposition? Notice the times where your body feels like it is going into that controlled, tight feeling. When you notice that feeling take the opportunity to explore how you could experience that occasion by going with the grain. Dont create problems where there arent problems, see what is there to be seen, accept it, incorporate it, and move through it. Start practicing being in your natural action.

Simplicity is a quality of perception in approaching any problem.

Philosophy does not accept what life believes and strives to convert reality into a problem. Like asking a question such as, Is this chair that I see in front of me really there? Can it exist by itself? Thus rather than making life easy for living by living in accord with life, philosophy complicates it by replacing the tranquility with the restlessness of problems.

If youd like to share how youre doing with this action item you can email us at


(Awesome Asians and Hapas)

Arnold Chon

This week listener Marshon has nominated Arnold Chon:

I would like for you shout out Arnold Chon.

Arnold Chon began his training at the age of 5 at the Jhoon Rhee Institute in Virginia. Arnold received his black belt at the age of 11 while training equally hard in gymnastics. Arnold became an Extreme Martial Arts competitor and conquered the competitive martial arts circuit, eventually becoming a NASKA champion and two time Junior Olympic gold medalist in Tae Kwon Do.

After his rise in the competitive martial arts circuit, Arnold moved to Los Angeles to try his hand at Hollywood. Arnold got his chance to show the world what he could do in Mortal Kombat: Conquest. After this, Arnold began working on feature films like Big Mama's House, Epic Movie, and Wild Hogs.

Arnold has also appeared in multiple installments of trilogies and franchises such as Rush Hour and Pirates of the Caribbean. Throughout his career, Arnold has fought the creme de le creme of Martial Arts legends including Jackie Chan, Jet Li, Wesley Snipes, Jean Claude Van Damme, Michael Jai White, and Chuck Norris.

From fighting the best to training the best and sharing his knowledge from a lifetime in the Martial Arts. Arnold has trained MMA fighters to a championship level in his spare time, both in Bellator and the UFC.

Arnold Chon continues to fight with Hollywood's toughest titans, recently taking on Sylvester Stallone and Arnold Schwarzenegger in Escape Plan. His more recent film credits as a stuntman include G.I. Joe: Retaliation and The Hangover Part III. Arnold also continues to frequently work in television, where it all started for him. Recently Arnold has done stunts for shows such as Sons of Anarchy, Criminal Minds, and Teen Wolf.

Not only can Arnold Chon perform these amazing feats but he can also coordinate and choreograph stunts and fights sequences that rival the Hong Kong masters.

Marshon thank you for nominating Arnold Chon, and Arnold youre awesome!

Check out Arnold Chons demo reel:


This week our #BruceLeeMoment comes from Mike P.:

Thanks Shannon, it's my great pleasure. I've been an immense admirer of your father from a very young age. To this day I can remember watching Enter the Dragon as a very young man and being amazed by his speed, athletic prowess and strength!

It's really hard for me to capture in words but your father has been inspiration to me in so many ways, I've considered him as something of a mentor in my life even though I never knew him of course. I lost my mother at 12 and my father somewhat checked out as a parent at that time so I've spent my life looking for inspirational male role models that I've felt are able to hold both the masculine and feminine sides of themselves. And your father did that in such a powerful way, a way we may never see again, but I aspire to myself. He held the yin and the yang so beautifully.

As a modern male in a time when I think many of us do not know how to hold ourselves as men, it's beyond inspirational to know that there was a man who could, on one hand, end a conflict with his fist but would rather end it with a poem, or a loving word, or a piece of philosophy that spoke to the heart of the issue and would end up doing a lot more healing than a punch could ever muster.

So a word of thanks to YOU. I'm beyond grateful that you are keeping the purity of his legacy alive and kicking (get it?!) and I have the utmost respect for you and your process of fighting for that so we could all benefit from it.

I've been a little late to the game in discovering the podcast but the silver lining has been that I can now "binge-listen" and absorb all the great gifts you've been offering through them.

Thank you again and keep doing what you're doing, the world is waking up and becoming more integrated as a result of your efforts, thanks so much, Mike P.

Share your #AAHA and #BruceLeeMoment recommendations with us via social media @BruceLee or email us at

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Bruce Lee
Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the martial artist and actor. For other uses, see Bruce Lee (disambiguation). This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lee.

Bruce Lee???Bruce Lee 1973.jpgLee in the 1971 film The Big BossBornLee Jun-fan
November 27, 1940
San Francisco, California, U.S.DiedJuly 20, 1973 (aged32)
Kowloon Tong, British Hong KongCauseof deathCerebral edemaResting placeLake View Cemetery, Seattle, USOthernamesLee Yuen-cham
Lee Yuen-kamCitizenshipBritish Hong Kong
AmericanEducationTak Sun
La Salle College
St. Francis Xavier's College
Edison Technical SchoolAlmamaterUniversity of WashingtonOccupation
  • Martial artist
  • philosopher
  • actor
  • director
  • screenwriter
  • producer
Yearsactive19411973Spouse(s)Linda Emery (m.1964)ChildrenBrandon Lee
Shannon LeeParents
  • Lee Hoi-chuen (father)
  • Grace Ho (mother)
FamilyPeter Lee (brother)
Robert Lee (brother)Awards
Hong Kong Film Awards Lifetime Achievement Award[1]
Star of the Century Award[2]

Golden Horse Awards Best Mandarin Film
1972 Fist of Fury[1]
Special Jury Award
1972 Fist of Fury

Height1.72m (5ft 8in)StyleHybrid martial arts
Jeet Kune DoTeacher(s)Lee Hoi-chuen (Wu-style t'ai chi ch'uan)
Siu Hon-san (Jing Wo)
Ip Man (Wing Chun)
Wong Shun Leung (Wing Chun)
Siu Hon-sung (Hung Ga)TrainerPeter Lee (fencing)
Brother Edward (boxing)
Ed Parker (Kenpo Karate)
Jhoon Goo Rhee (side kick)
Dan Inosanto (Kali and Nunchaku)Notable school(s)Lee Jun Fan Gung Fu InstituteChinese nameTraditionalChinese???Simplified Chinese???TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinLi XiaolongYue: CantoneseJyutpingLei5 Siu2 Lung4Lee Jun-fanChinese???TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinLi ZhenfanYue: CantoneseJyutpingLei5 Zan3 Faan4WebsiteBruce Lee Foundation
Bruce Lee official websiteSignatureSignature of Bruce Lee.svg

Lee Jun-fan (Chinese: ???; November 27, 1940 July 20, 1973), known professionally as Bruce Lee (Chinese: ???), was a Hong Kong-American[3] actor, director, martial artist, martial arts instructor, and philosopher.[4] He was the founder of Jeet Kune Do, a hybrid martial arts philosophy drawing from different combat disciplines that is often credited with paving the way for modern mixed martial arts (MMA).[5][6] Lee is considered by commentators, critics, media, and other martial artists to be the most influential martial artist of all time[7][8][9] and a pop culture icon of the 20th century, who bridged the gap between East and West.[10][11] He is often credited with helping to change the way Asians were presented in American films.[12]

The son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-chuen, Lee was born in the Chinatown area of San Francisco, California on November 27, 1940 to parents from Hong Kong, and was raised with his family in Kowloon, Hong Kong.[13] He was introduced to the film industry by his father and appeared in several films as a child actor. Lee moved to the United States at the age of 18 to receive his higher education at the University of Washington in Seattle,[14] and it was during this time that he began teaching martial arts. His Hong Kong and Hollywood-produced films elevated the traditional Hong Kong martial arts film to a new level of popularity and acclaim, sparking a surge of interest in Chinese martial arts in the West in the 1970s. The direction and tone of his films dramatically changed and influenced martial arts and martial arts films in the Hollywood, Hong Kong, and the rest of the world.[15]

He is noted for his roles in five feature-length martial arts films in the early 1970s: Lo Wei's The Big Boss (1971) and Fist of Fury (1972); Golden Harvest's Way of the Dragon (1972), directed and written by Lee; Golden Harvest and Warner Brothers' Enter the Dragon (1973) and The Game of Death (1978), both directed by Robert Clouse.[16] Lee became an iconic figure known throughout the world, particularly among the Chinese, based upon his portrayal of Chinese nationalism in his films[17] and among Asian Americans for defying stereotypes associated with the emasculated Asian male.[18] He trained in the art of Wing Chun and later combined his other influences from various sources into the spirit of his personal martial arts philosophy, which he dubbed Jeet Kune Do (The Way of the Intercepting Fist). Lee had residences in Hong Kong and Seattle.[19] He died on July 20, 1973 at the age of 32.[20]

Early life

Bruce Lee as a baby with his parents, Grace Ho and Lee Hoi-chuen

Bruce Lee was born on November 27, 1940 in the Chinese Hospital in Chinatown, San Francisco. According to the Chinese zodiac, Lee was born in both the hour and the year of the Dragon, which according to tradition is a strong and fortuitous omen.[21] Lee and his parents returned to Hong Kong when he was three months old.[22] Bruce's father, Lee Hoi-chuen, was Han Chinese, and his mother, Grace Ho (???), was of Eurasian ancestry.[23]

Career and education

1940 to 1958: Early Roles, schooling and martial arts initiation

Bruce Lee in The Kid

Lee's father Lee Hoi-chuen was a famous Cantonese opera star. Because of this, Lee was introduced into films at a very young age and appeared in several films as a child. Lee had his first role as a baby who was carried onto the stage in the film Golden Gate Girl.[24] As a nine-year-old, he would co-star with his father in The Kid in 1950, which was based on a comic book character and was his first leading role.[25] By the time he was 18, he had appeared in twenty films.[21]

After Lee was involved in several street fights, his parents decided that he needed to be trained in the martial arts. Lee's first introduction to martial arts was through his father, from whom he learned the fundamentals of Wu-style t'ai chi ch'uan.[26]

Lee and Yip Man

The largest influence on Lee's martial arts development was his study of Wing Chun.[27] Lee began training in Wing Chun when he was 16 years old under the Wing Chun teacher Yip Man in between late 1956 and 1957, after losing to rival gang members. Yip's regular classes generally consisted of the forms practice, chi sao (sticking hands) drills, wooden dummy techniques, and free-sparring.[28] There was no set pattern to the classes.[28] Yip tried to keep his students from fighting in the street gangs of Hong Kong by encouraging them to fight in organized competitions.[29]

After a year into his Wing Chun training, most of Yip Man's other students refused to train with Lee when they learned of his mixed ancestry, as the Chinese were generally against teaching their martial arts techniques to non-Asians.[30][31] Lee's sparring partner, Hawkins Cheung, states, "Probably fewer than six people in the whole Wing Chun clan were personally taught, or even partly taught, by Yip Man".[32] However, Lee showed a keen interest in Wing Chun and continued to train privately with Yip Man and Wong Shun Leung.[33] Wan Kam Leung, a student of Wong's, witnessed a sparring bout between Wong and Lee and noted the speed and precision with which Lee was able to deliver his kicks.[34] Lee continued to train with Wong Shun Leung after returning to Hong Kong from America.

Lee in 1958, dancing Cha-cha

After attending Tak Sun School (????; several blocks from his home at 218 Nathan Road, Kowloon), Lee entered the primary school division of the Catholic La Salle College at the age of 12.[35] In 1956, due to poor academic performance and possibly poor conduct, he was transferred to St. Francis Xavier's College, where he would be mentored by Brother Edward, a teacher and coach of the school boxing team. In 1958, Bruce won the Hong Kong schools boxing tournament, knocking out the previous champion in the final.[36]

1959 to 1964: Continuous studies and martial arts breakthrough

In the spring of 1959, Lee got into another street fight, and the police were called.[37] Until his late teens, Lee's street fights became more frequent and included beating the son of a feared triad family.[38] Eventually, Lee's father decided his son should leave Hong Kong to pursue a safer and healthier life in the United States. His parents confirmed the police's fear that this time Lee's opponent had an organized crime background and that there was the possibility that a contract was out for his life.

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The police detective came and he says "Excuse me Mr. Lee, your son is really fighting bad in school. If he gets into just one more fight I might have to put him in jail".

?Robert Lee[39]

In April 1959, Lee's parents decided to send him to the United States to stay with his older sister, Agnes Lee (???), who was already living with family friends in San Francisco. After several months, he moved to Seattle in 1959 to continue his high school education, where he also worked for Ruby Chow as a live-in waiter at her restaurant. Chow's husband was a co-worker and friend of Lee's father. Lee's elder brother Peter Lee (???) would also join him in Seattle for a short stay before moving on to Minnesota to attend college. That year Lee also started to teach martial arts. He called what he taught Jun Fan Gung Fu (literally Bruce Lee's Kung Fu). It was basically his approach to Wing Chun.[40] Lee taught friends he met in Seattle, starting with Judo practitioner Jesse Glover, who continued to teach some of Lee's early techniques. Taky Kimura became Lee's first Assistant Instructor and continued to teach his art and philosophy after Lee's death.[41] Lee opened his first martial arts school, named the Lee Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute, in Seattle.

In December 1960, Lee completed his high school education and received his diploma from Edison Technical School on Capitol Hill in Seattle.

In March 1961, Lee enrolled at the University of Washington and studied dramatic arts, philosophy, psychology, and various other subjects.[42][43] Despite what Lee himself and many others have stated, Lee's official major was drama rather than philosophy according to a 1999 article in the university's alumni publication.[44]

Lee dropped out of college in early 1964 and moved to Oakland to live with James Yimm Lee. James Lee was twenty years senior to Bruce Lee and a well-known Chinese martial artist in the area. Together, they founded the second Jun Fan martial arts studio in Oakland. James Lee was also responsible for introducing Bruce Lee to Ed Parker, an American martial artist and organizer of the Long Beach International Karate Championships where Bruce Lee was later "discovered" by Hollywood. At the invitation of Ed Parker, Lee appeared in the 1964 Long Beach International Karate Championships and performed repetitions of two-finger push-ups (using the thumb and the index finger of one hand) with feet at approximately shoulder-width apart. In the same Long Beach event he also performed the "One inch punch."[45] Lee stood upright, his right foot forward with knees bent slightly, in front of a standing, stationary partner. Lee's right arm was partly extended and his right fist approximately one inch (2.5cm) away from the partner's chest. Without retracting his right arm, Lee then forcibly delivered the punch to volunteer Bob Baker while largely maintaining his posture, sending Baker backwards and falling into a chair said to be placed behind Baker to prevent injury, though Baker's momentum soon caused him to fall to the floor. Baker recalled, "I told Bruce not to do this type of demonstration again. When he punched me that last time, I had to stay home from work because the pain in my chest was unbearable".[46] It was at the 1964 championships that Lee first met Taekwondo master Jhoon Goo Rhee. The two developed a friendshipa relationship from which they benefited as martial artists. Rhee taught Lee the side kick in detail, and Lee taught Rhee the "non-telegraphic" punch.[47] In Oakland's Chinatown in 1964, Lee had a controversial private match with Wong Jack Man, a direct student of Ma Kin Fung, known for his mastery of Xingyiquan, Northern Shaolin, and T'ai chi ch'uan. According to Lee, the Chinese community issued an ultimatum to him to stop teaching non-Chinese people. When he refused to comply, he was challenged to a combat match with Wong. The arrangement was that if Lee lost, he would have to shut down his school, while if he won, he would be free to teach white people, or anyone else.[48] Wong denied this, stating that he requested to fight Lee after Lee boasted during one of his demonstrations at a Chinatown theatre that he could beat anyone in San Francisco, and that Wong himself did not discriminate against Whites or other non-Chinese people.[49] Lee commented, "That paper had all the names of the sifu from Chinatown, but they don't scare me".[50] Individuals known to have witnessed the match include Cadwell, James Lee (Bruce Lee's associate, no relation), and William Chen, a teacher of T'ai chi ch'uan. Wong and William Chen stated that the fight lasted an unusually long 2025 minutes.[49][51] Wong claims that although he had originally expected a serious but polite bout, Lee aggressively attacked him with intent to kill. When Wong presented the traditional handshake, Lee appeared to accept the greeting, but instead, Lee immediately thrust his hand as a spear aimed at Wong's eyes. Forced to defend his life, Wong nonetheless refrained from striking Lee with killing force when the opportunity presented itself because it could have earned him a prison sentence, but used illegal cufflings under his sleeves. The fight ended due to Lee's "unusually winded" condition, as opposed to a decisive blow by either fighter.[49] By contrast, according to Bruce Lee, Linda Lee Cadwell, and James Yimm Lee, the fight lasted a mere 3 minutes with a decisive victory for Lee. In Cadwell's account, "The fight ensued, it was a no-holds-barred fight, it took three minutes. Bruce got this guy down to the ground and said 'Do you give up?' and the man said he gave up".[48] A couple of weeks after the bout, Lee gave an interview claiming that he had defeated an unnamed challenger, which Wong says was an obvious reference to him.[49][51] In response, Wong published his own account of the fight in the Chinese Pacific Weekly, a Chinese-language newspaper in San Francisco, with an invitation to a public rematch if Lee was not satisfied with the account. Lee did not respond to the invitation despite his reputation for violently responding to every provocation,[49] and there were no further public announcements by either, though Lee continued to teach white people. Lee had abandoned thoughts of a film career in favour of pursuing martial arts. However, a martial arts exhibition on Long Beach in 1964 eventually led to the invitation by television producer William Dozier for an audition for a role in the pilot for "Number One Son" about Lee Chan, the son of Charlie Chan. The show never materialized, but Dozier saw potential in Lee.[52]

1966 to 1970: American roles and creating Jeet Kune Do

Publicity photo of Williams and Lee for The Green Hornet

In 1966, Lee played the role of the sidekick Kato alongside the title character played by Van Williams in the William Dozier's produced TV series titled The Green Hornet based on the radio show by the same name.[53][52] The show lasted only one season of 26 episodes, from September 1966 to March 1967. Lee and Williams also appeared as their respective characters in three crossover episodes of Batman, another William Dozier-produced television series.[54][55][56]

In 1967, Lee played a role in one episode of Ironside.

The Jeet Kune Do emblem is a registered trademark held by the Bruce Lee Estate. The Chinese characters around the Taijitu symbol read: "Using no way as way" and "Having no limitation as limitation" The arrows represent the endless interaction between yang and yin.[57]

Jeet Kune Do originated in 1967. After filming one season of The Green Hornet, Lee found himself out of work and opened The Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute. The controversial match with Wong Jack Man influenced Lee's philosophy about martial arts. Lee concluded that the fight had lasted too long and that he had failed to live up to his potential using his Wing Chun techniques. He took the view that traditional martial arts techniques were too rigid and formalized to be practical in scenarios of chaotic street fighting. Lee decided to develop a system with an emphasis on "practicality, flexibility, speed, and efficiency". He started to use different methods of training such as weight training for strength, running for endurance, stretching for flexibility, and many others which he constantly adapted, including fencing and basic boxing techniques.

Lee emphasized what he called "the style of no style". This consisted of getting rid of the formalized approach which Lee claimed was indicative of traditional styles. Lee felt that even the system he now called Jun Fan Gung Fu was too restrictive, and it eventually evolved into a philosophy and martial art he would come to call Jeet Kune Do or the Way of the Intercepting Fist. It is a term he would later regret, because Jeet Kune Do implied specific parameters that styles connote, whereas the idea of his martial art was to exist outside of parameters and limitations.[58]

At the time, two of Lee's martial arts students were Hollywood script writer Stirling Silliphant and actor James Coburn. In 1969 the three worked on a script for a film called The Silent Flute, and went together on a location hunt to India. The project was not realised at the time, but the 1978 film Circle of Iron, starring David Carradine, was based on the same plot. In 2010, producer Paul Maslansky was reported to have planned and received funding for a film based on the original script for The Silent Flute.[59] In 1969, Lee made a brief appearance in the Silliphant-penned film Marlowe, where he played a hoodlum hired to intimidate private detective Philip Marlowe, (played by James Garner), who uses his martial arts abilities to commit acts of vandalization to intimidate Marlowe.[60][61] The same year he was credited as the karate advisor in The Wrecking Crew, the fourth instalment of the Matt Helm comedy spy-fi film starring Dean Martin.[62] Also that year, Lee acted in one episode of Here Come the Brides and Blondie.[63][64]

In 1970, he was responsible for fight choreography for A Walk in the Spring Rain starring Ingrid Bergman and Anthony Quinn, again written by Silliphant.[65][66]

1971 to 1973: Hong Kong films and Hollywood breakthrough

In 1971, Lee appeared in four episodes of the television series Longstreet, written by Silliphant. Lee played Li Tsung the martial arts instructor of the title character Mike Longstreet (played by James Franciscus), and important aspects of his martial arts philosophy were written into the script.[67][68] According to statements made by Lee, and also by Linda Lee Cadwell after Lee's death, in 1971 Lee pitched a television series of his own tentatively titled The Warrior, discussions of which were also confirmed by Warner Bros. During a December 9, 1971 television interview on The Pierre Berton Show, Lee stated that both Paramount and Warner Brothers wanted him "to be in a modernized type of a thing, and that they think the Western idea is out, whereas I want to do the Western".[69] According to Cadwell, however, Lee's concept was retooled and renamed Kung Fu, but Warner Bros. gave Lee no credit.[70] Warner Brothers states that they had for some time been developing an identical concept,[71] created by two writers and producers, Ed Spielman and Howard Friedlander. According to these sources, the reason Lee was not cast was in part because of his ethnicity, but more so because he had a thick accent.[72] The role of the Shaolin monk in the Wild West was eventually awarded to then-non-martial-artist David Carradine. In The Pierre Berton Show interview, Lee stated he understood Warner Brothers' attitudes towards casting in the series: "They think that business-wise it is a risk. I don't blame them. If the situation were reversed, and an American star were to come to Hong Kong, and I was the man with the money, I would have my own concerns as to whether the acceptance would be there".[73]

Producer Fred Weintraub had advised Lee to return to Hong Kong and make a feature film which he could showcase to executives in Hollywood.[74] Not happy with his supporting roles in the US, Lee returned to Hong Kong. Unaware that The Green Hornet had been played to success in Hong Kong and was unofficially referred to as "The Kato Show", he was surprised to be recognized on the street as the star of the show. After negotiating with both Shaw Brothers Studio and Golden Harvest, Lee signed a film contract to star in two films produced by Golden Harvest.

Lee played his first leading role in The Big Boss (1971), which proved to be an enormous box office success across Asia and catapulted him to stardom. He soon followed up with Fist of Fury (1972), which broke the box office records set previously by The Big Boss. Having finished his initial two-year contract, Lee negotiated a new deal with Golden Harvest. Lee later formed his own company, Concord Production Inc., with Chow. For his third film, Way of the Dragon (1972), he was given complete control of the film's production as the writer, director, star, and choreographer of the fight scenes. In 1964, at a demonstration in Long Beach, California, Lee had met karate champion Chuck Norris. In Way of the Dragon Lee introduced Norris to moviegoers as his opponent, their showdown is considered one of the fight scene in martial arts and film history.[75][76] The role had originally been offered to American karate champion Joe Lewis.[77]

From August to October 1972, Lee began work on his fourth Golden Harvest Film, Game of Death. He began filming some scenes, including his fight sequence with 7ft 2in (218cm) American basketball star Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, a former student. Production stopped in November 1972 when Warner Brothers offered Lee the opportunity to star in Enter the Dragon, the first film to be produced jointly by Concord, Golden Harvest, and Warner Bros. Filming began in Hong Kong in January 1973. One month into the filming, another production company, Starseas Motion Pictures, promoted Bruce Lee as a leading actor in Fist of Unicorn, although he had merely agreed to choreograph the fight sequences in the film as a favour to his long-time friend Unicorn Chan. Lee planned to sue the production company, but retained his friendship with Chan.[78] However, only a few months after the completion of Enter the Dragon, and six days before its July 26, 1973 release, Lee died. Enter the Dragon would go on to become one of the year's highest-grossing films and cement Lee as a martial arts legend. It was made for US$850,000 in 1973 (equivalent to $4million adjusted for inflation as of 2007).[79] To date, Enter the Dragon has grossed over $200million worldwide.[80] The film sparked a brief fad in martial arts, epitomised in songs such as "Kung Fu Fighting" and TV shows like Kung Fu (in Enter The Dragon, Lee was a Shaolin Kung Fu master, similar to the role of David Carradine as Kwai Chang Caine).

1978 to 2019: Posthumous work

Bruce Lee's star at the Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong.

Robert Clouse, the director of Enter the Dragon, together with Golden Harvest, revived Lee's unfinished film Game of Death. Lee had shot over 100 minutes of footage, including out-takes, for Game of Death before shooting was stopped to allow him to work on Enter the Dragon. In addition to Abdul-Jabbar, George Lazenby, Hapkido master Ji Han-Jae, and another of Lee's students, Dan Inosanto, were also to appear in the film, which was to culminate in Lee's character, Hai Tien (clad in the now-famous yellow track suit[81][82]) taking on a series of different challengers on each floor as they make their way through a five-level pagoda. In a controversial move, Robert Clouse finished the film using a look-alike and archive footage of Lee from his other films with a new storyline and cast, which was released in 1978. However, the cobbled-together film contained only fifteen minutes of actual footage of Lee (he had printed many unsuccessful takes)[83] while the rest had a Lee look-alike, Kim Tai Chung, and Yuen Biao as stunt double. The unused footage Lee had filmed was recovered 22 years later and included in the documentary Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey.

Bruce Lee's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Apart from Game of Death, other future film projects were planned to feature Lee at the time. In 1972, after the success of The Big Boss and Fist of Fury, a third film was planned by Raymond Chow at Golden Harvest to be directed by Lo Wei, titled Yellow-Faced Tiger. However, at the time, Lee decided to direct and produce his own script for Way of the Dragon instead. Although Lee had formed a production company with Raymond Chow, a period film was also planned from SeptemberNovember 1973 with the competing Shaw Brothers Studio, to be directed by either Chor Yuen or Cheng Kang, and written by Yi Kang and Chang Cheh, titled The Seven Sons of the Jade Dragon.[84] Lee had also worked on several scripts himself. A tape containing a recording of Lee narrating the basic storyline to a film tentatively titled Southern Fist/Northern Leg exists, showing some similarities with the canned script for The Silent Flute (Circle of Iron).[85] Another script had the title Green Bamboo Warrior, set in San Francisco, planned to co-star Bolo Yeung and to be produced by Andrew Vajna who later went on to produce First Blood.[78] Photoshoot costume tests were also organized for some of these planned film projects.

In 2015, Perfect Storm Entertainment and Bruce Lee's daughter, Shannon Lee announced that the series "The Warrior" would be produced and would air on the Cinemax and the filmmaker Justin Lin was chosen to direct the series.[86] Production began on October 22, 2017 in Cape Town, South Africa. The first season will contain 10 episodes.[87] In April 2019, Cinemax renewed the series for a second season.[88]



Lee is best known as a martial artist, but he also studied drama and Asian and Western philosophy while a student at the University of Washington and throughout his life. He was well-read and had an extensive library dominated by martial arts subjects and philosophical texts.[89] His own books on martial arts and fighting philosophy are known for their philosophical assertions, both inside and outside of martial arts circles. His eclectic philosophy often mirrored his fighting beliefs, though he was quick to claim that his martial arts were solely a metaphor for such teachings. He believed that any knowledge ultimately led to self-knowledge, and said that his chosen method of self-expression was martial arts.[90] His influences include Taoism, Jiddu Krishnamurti, and Buddhism.[91] Lee's philosophy was very much in opposition to the conservative worldview advocated by Confucianism.[92] John Little states that Lee was an atheist. When asked in 1972 about his religious affiliation, he replied, "none whatsoever",[93] and when asked if he believed in God, he said, "To be perfectly frank, I really do not."[90]


Aside from martial arts and philosophy, which focus on the physical aspect and self-consciousness for truths and principles,[94] Lee also wrote poetry that reflected his emotion and a stage in his life collectively.[95] Many forms of art remain concordant with the artist creating them. Lee's principle of self-expression was applied to his poetry as well. His daughter Shannon Lee said, "He did write poetry; he was really the consummate artist."[96] His poetic works were originally handwritten on paper, then later on edited and published, with John Little being the major author (editor), for Bruce Lee's works. Linda Lee Cadwell (Bruce Lee's wife) shared her husband's notes, poems, and experiences with followers. She mentioned "Lee's poems are, by American standards, rather darkreflecting the deeper, less exposed recesses of the human psyche".[97] Most of Bruce Lee's poems are categorized as anti-poetry or fall into a paradox. The mood in his poems shows the side of the man that can be compared with other poets such as Robert Frost, one of many well-known poets expressing himself with dark poetic works. The paradox taken from the Yin and Yang symbol in martial arts was also integrated into his poetry. His martial arts and philosophy contribute a great part to his poetry. The free verse form of Lee's poetry reflects his famous quote "Be formless... shapeless, like water."[98]


Bruce Lee is buried next to his son Brandon at Lake View Cemetery in Seattle.

On May 10, 1973, Lee collapsed during an automated dialogue replacement session for Enter the Dragon at Golden Harvest in Hong Kong. Suffering from seizures and headaches, he was immediately rushed to Hong Kong Baptist Hospital, where doctors diagnosed cerebral edema. They were able to reduce the swelling through the administration of mannitol. The headache and cerebral edema that occurred in his first collapse were later repeated on the day of his death.[99]

On July 20, 1973, Lee was in Hong Kong to have dinner with actor George Lazenby, with whom he intended to make a film. According to Lee's wife Linda, Lee met producer Raymond Chow at 2p.m. at home to discuss the making of the film Game of Death. They worked until 4p.m. and then drove together to the home of Lee's colleague Betty Ting Pei, a Taiwanese actress. The three went over the script at Ting's home, and then Chow left to attend a dinner meeting.[100][101]

Later, Lee complained of a headache, and Ting gave him the painkiller Equagesic, which contained both aspirin and the tranquilizer meprobamate. Around 7:30p.m., he went to lie down for a nap. When Lee did not come for dinner, Chow came to the apartment, but he was unable to wake Lee up. A doctor was summoned, and spent ten minutes attempting to revive Lee before sending him by ambulance to Queen Elizabeth Hospital. Lee was declared dead on arrival, at the age of 32.[102]

There was no visible external injury; however, according to autopsy reports, Lee's brain had swollen considerably, from 1,400 to 1,575 grams (a 13 percent increase). The autopsy found Equagesic in his system. On October 15, 2005, Chow stated in an interview that Lee died from an allergic reaction to the tranquilizer meprobamate, the main ingredient in Equagesic, which Chow described as an ingredient commonly used in painkillers. When the doctors announced Lee's death, it was officially ruled a "death by misadventure".[103][104]

Lee's wife Linda returned to her hometown of Seattle, and had Lee's body buried in Lake View Cemetery in Seattle.[105][106] Pallbearers at Lee's funeral on July 30, 1973, included Taky Kimura, Steve McQueen, James Coburn, Dan Inosanto, Peter Chin, and Lee's brother Robert.[107] Around the time of Lee's death, numerous rumors appeared in the media.[108] Lee's iconic status and untimely death fed many wild rumors and theories. These included murder involving the triads and a supposed curse on him and his family.[109]

Donald Teare, a forensic scientist, recommended by Scotland Yard, who had overseen over 1,000 autopsies, was assigned to the Lee case. His conclusion was "death by misadventure" caused by an acute cerebral edema due to a reaction to compounds present in the combination medication Equagesic.[110] Although there was initial speculation that cannabis found in Lee's stomach may have contributed to his death, Teare refuted this, stating that it would "be both 'irresponsible and irrational' to say that [cannabis] might have triggered either the events of Bruce's collapse on May 10 or his death on July 20".[110] Dr. R. R. Lycette, the clinical pathologist at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, reported at the coroner hearing that the death could not have been caused by cannabis.[110]

At the 1975 San Diego Comic-Con convention, Lee's friend Chuck Norris attributed his death to a reaction to the combination of the muscle-relaxant medication he had been taking since 1968 for a ruptured disc in his back and an "antibiotic" he was given for his headache on the night of his death.[111] In a 2017 episode of the Reelz TV series Autopsy: The Last Hours of..., forensic pathologist Dr. Michael Hunter theorized that Lee died of adrenal crisis brought on by the overuse of cortisone, which Lee had been taking since injuring his back in a 1970 weightlifting mishap.[112] Dr. Hunter believes that Lee's exceptionally strong "drive and ambition" played a fundamental role in the martial artist's ultimate demise.[112]

In a 2018 biography, author Matthew Polly consulted with medical experts and theorized that Lee died from cerebral edema caused by over-exertion and heat stroke; and heat stroke was not considered at the time because it was then a poorly-understood condition.[113] Furthermore, Lee had had his underarm sweat glands removed in late 1972, in the apparent belief that underarm sweat was unphotogenic on film.[112] Polly further theorized that this caused Lee's body to overheat while practicing in hot temperatures on May 10 and July 20, 1973, resulting in heat stroke that in turn exacerbated the cerebral edema that led to his death.[113]


Bruce Lee statue in Hong Kong Main article: List of awards and honors received by Bruce Lee

Lee was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.[12] In April 2013, he was posthumously awarded the prestigious Founders Award at The Asian Awards.[114]

There are several sites dedicated to Lee around the world:

A 2.5m (8.2ft) bronze statue of Lee was unveiled in Hong Kong in 2005, on what would have been his 65th birthday.[115] The day before the Hong Kong statue was dedicated, the city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina unveiled its own 1.68m (5.5ft) bronze statue; supporters of the statue cited Lee as a unifying symbol against the ethnic divisions in the country, which had culminated in the 1992-95 Bosnian War.[116] Another statue of Lee was unveiled in Los Angeles, in the Chinatown neighborhood, on June 15, 2013. It stands at 7ft (210cm) tall and was made in Guangzhou, China.[117]

On January 6, 2009, it was announced that Lee's Hong Kong home (41 Cumberland Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong) would be preserved and transformed into a tourist site by Yu Pang-lin.[118][119] Yu died in 2015 and this plan did not materialize.[120] In 2018, Yu's grandson, Pang Chi-ping, said: "We will convert the mansion into a centre for Chinese studies next year, which provides courses like Mandarin and Chinese music for children."[121]

A theme park dedicated to Lee was built in Jun'an, Guangdong. Mainland Chinese only started watching Bruce Lee films in the 1980s, when videos of classic movies like The Chinese Connection became available. Films like Enter the Dragon and Fists of Fury were banned by Mao as spiritual pollution and rightist sentimentality.[122]

In April 2014, Lee was named a featured character in the video game EA Sports UFC, and is playable in multiple weight classes.[123]

Martial arts lineage

Lee was trained in Wu Tai Chi Chuan (also known as Ng-ga) and Jing Mo Tam Tui for the twelve sets. Lee was trained in the martial arts Choy Li Fut, Western Boxing, Epee fencing, Judo, Praying Mantis kung fu, Hsing-I, and Jujitsu.

When Bruce arrived in the US he (already) had training in Wu Style Tai Chi, sometimes in Hong Kong called Ng-ga. And he had of course training in western boxing. He had training in fencing from his brother, that's Epee, that goes from toe to head. He had training obviously in Wing Chun. And the other area was the training he had received in Buk Pie, or Tam Toi, he was twelve sets in Tam Toi. And I believe he had traded with a Choy Li Fut man.

?Danny Inosanto[124]

Certified instructors

Bruce Lee personally certified only three instructors: Taky Kimura, James Yimm Lee, and Dan Inosanto. Taky Kimura holds a 5th rank in Jun Fan Gung Fu. James Yimm Lee held a 3rd rank in Jun Fan Gung Fu. Inosanto holds the 3rd rank (Instructor) directly from Bruce Lee in Jeet Kune Do, Jun Fan Gung Fu, and Bruce Lee's Tao of Chinese Gung Fu. Other Jeet Kune Do instructors since Lee's death have been certified directly by Dan Inosanto, some with remaining Bruce Lee-signed certificates.

James Yimm Lee, a close friend of Lee, certified a few students including Gary Dill, who studied Jeet Kune Do under James and received permission via a personal letter from him in 1972 to pass on his learning of Jun Fan Gung Fu to others. Taky Kimura, to date, has certified only one person in Jun Fan Gung Fu: his son Andy Kimura. Dan Inosanto continued to teach and certify select students in Jeet Kune Do for over 30 years, making it possible for thousands of martial arts practitioners to trace their training lineage back to Bruce Lee. Prior to his death, Lee told his then only two living instructors Kimura and Inosanto (James Yimm Lee had died in 1972) to dismantle his schools. Both Taky Kimura and Dan Inosanto were allowed to teach small classes thereafter, under the guideline "keep the numbers low, but the quality high".

Bruce also instructed several World Karate Champions including Chuck Norris, Joe Lewis, and Mike Stone. Between the three of them, during their training with Bruce, they won every karate championship in the United States.[125]

In Japan, Junichi Okada is a certified Japanese instructor in Jeet Kune Do.[126]

Friends, students, and contemporaries

James Coburn was a martial arts student and a friend of Lee. Coburn worked with Lee and Stirling Silliphant on developing The Silent Flute. Upon Lee's early death, Coburn was one of his pallbearers.[127]

Steve McQueen was also martial arts student and a friend of Lee. Both were very competitive of their success. Lee made no secret that he wanted everything McQueen had and would stop at nothing to get it.[128][129] Upon Lee's early demise, McQueen was one of his pallbearers at the funeral.[130][127]

Dan Inosanto, was a friend and disciple of Lee.[131] Inosanto was one of Lee's pallbearer and would go on to train his son Brandon.[127][132]

James Yimm Lee was one of Lee's (no relation) three personally certified 3rd rank instructors and co-founded the Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute in Oakland where he taught Jun Fan Gung Fu in Lee's absence. James was responsible for introducing Lee to Ed Parker, the organizer of the Long Beach International Karate Championships where Lee was first introduced to the martial arts community.[133]

Hollywood couple Roman Polanski and Sharon Tate studied martial arts with Lee. Polanski flew Lee to Switzerland to train him. Tate studied with Lee in preparation for her role in The Wrecking Crew. After Tate was murdered by the Manson Family, Polanski initially suspected Lee.[134]

Screenwriter Stirling Silliphant was a martial arts student and a friend of Lee.[135][136] Silliphant worked with Lee and James Coburn on developing The Silent Flute.[137] Lee acted and provided his martial arts expertise in several projects penned by Silliphant, the first in Marlowe (1969) where Lee plays Winslow Wong a hoodlum well versed in martial arts, Lee also did fight choreographies for the film A Walk in the Spring Rain (1970), and Lee played Li Tsung a Jeet Kune Do instructor who teaches the main character in the tv show Longstreet (1971), included in the script were elements of his martial arts philosophy.[60][61][65][66][67][68]

Basketball player Kareem Abdul-Jabbar studied martial arts with whom he developed a friendship.[65]

Actor and Karate Champion Chuck Norris was a friend, and contemporary of Lee with whom he trained.[138] After Lee's passing Norris kept in touch with Lee's family, and both their son's Eric Norris and Brandon Lee became friends.[139]

Fitness and nutrition

At 172cm (5ft 8in) and weighing 64kg (141lb) at the time,[140] Lee was renowned for his physical fitness and vigor, achieved by using a dedicated fitness regimen to become as strong as possible. After his match with Wong Jack Man in 1965, Lee changed his approach toward martial arts training. Lee felt that many martial artists of his time did not spend enough time on physical conditioning. Lee included all elements of total fitnessmuscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. He used traditional bodybuilding techniques to build some muscle mass, though not overdone, as that could decrease speed or flexibility. At the same time, with respect to balance, Lee maintained that mental and spiritual preparation are fundamental to the success of physical training in martial arts skills. In Tao of Jeet Kune Do he wrote:

Training is one of the most neglected phases of athletics. Too much time is given to the development of skill and too little to the development of the individual for participation.... JKD, ultimately is not a matter of petty techniques but of highly developed spirituality and physique.[141]

According to Linda Lee Cadwell, soon after he moved to the United States, Lee started to take nutrition seriously and developed an interest in health foods, high-protein drinks, and vitamin and mineral supplements. He later concluded that achieving a high-performance body was akin to maintaining the engine of a high-performance automobile. Allegorically, as one could not keep a car running on low-octane fuels, one could not sustain one's body with a steady diet of junk food, and with "the wrong fuel", one's body would perform sluggishly or sloppily.[142] Lee also avoided baked goods and refined flour, describing them as providing empty calories that did nothing for his body.[143] He was known for being a fan of Asian cuisine for its variety, and often ate meals with a combination of vegetables, rice, and fish, and drank fresh milk.



Lee's Cantonese birth name was Lee Jun-fan (???).[144] The name homophonically means "return again", and was given to Lee by his mother, who felt he would return to the United States once he came of age.[145] Because of his mother's superstitious nature, she had originally named him Sai-fon (??), which is a feminine name meaning "small phoenix".[39] The English name "Bruce" is thought to have been given by the hospital attending physician, Dr. Mary Glover.[146]

Lee had three other Chinese names: Lee Yuen-cham (???), a family/clan name; Lee Yuen-kam (???), which he used as a student name while he was attending La Salle College, and his Chinese screen name Lee Siu-lung (???; Siu-lung means "little dragon"). Lee's given name Jun-fan was originally written in Chinese as ??; however, the Jun (?) Chinese character was identical to part of his grandfather's name, Lee Jun-biu (???). Hence, the Chinese character for Jun in Lee's name was changed to the homonym ? instead, to avoid naming taboo in Chinese tradition.


Lee and his family

Lee's father, Lee Hoi-chuen, was one of the leading Cantonese opera and film actors at the time and was embarking on a year-long opera tour with his family on the eve of the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong. Lee Hoi-chuen had been touring the United States for many years and performing in numerous Chinese communities there.

Although many of his peers decided to stay in the US, Lee Hoi-chuen returned to Hong Kong after Bruce's birth. Within months, Hong Kong was invaded and the Lees lived for three years and eight months under Japanese occupation. After the war ended, Lee Hoi-chuen resumed his acting career and became a more popular actor during Hong Kong's rebuilding years.

Lee's mother, Grace Ho, was from one of the wealthiest and most powerful clans in Hong Kong, the Ho-tungs. She was the half-niece of Sir Robert Ho-tung,[147][148] the Eurasian patriarch of the clan. As such, the young Bruce Lee grew up in an affluent and privileged environment. Despite the advantage of his family's status, the neighborhood in which Lee grew up became overcrowded, dangerous, and full of gang rivalries due to an influx of refugees fleeing communist China for Hong Kong, at that time a British Crown Colony.[39]

Grace Ho is reported as either the adopted or biological daughter of Ho Kom-tong (Ho Gumtong, ???) and the half-niece of Sir Robert Ho-tung, both notable Hong Kong businessmen and philanthropists.[147] Bruce was the fourth of five children: Phoebe Lee (???), Agnes Lee (???), Peter Lee, and Robert Lee.

Grace's parentage remains unclear. Linda Lee, in her 1989 biography The Bruce Lee Story, suggests that Grace had a German father and was a Catholic.[75] Bruce Thomas, in his influential 1994 biography Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit, suggests that Grace had a Chinese mother and a German father.[149] Lee's relative Eric Peter Ho, in his 2010 book Tracing My Children's Lineage, suggests that Grace was born in Shanghai to a Eurasian woman named Cheung King-sin.[149] Eric Peter Ho said that Grace Lee was the daughter of a mixed race Shanghainese woman and her father was Ho Kom Tong. Grace Lee said her mother was English and her father was Chinese.[150] Fredda Dudley Balling said Grace Lee was three-quarters Chinese and one-quarter British.[151]

In the 2018 biography Bruce Lee: A Life, Matthew Polly identifies Lee's maternal grandfather as Ho Kom-tong, who had often been reported as his adoptive grandfather. Ho's father, Mozes Hartog Bosman, was a Dutch Jewish businessman from Rotterdam.[152] He moved to Hong Kong with the Dutch East India Company and served as the Dutch consul to Hong Kong at one time. He had a Chinese concubine named Sze Tai with whom he had six children, including Ho Kom Tong. Bosman subsequently abandoned his family and immigrated to California.[153] Ho Kom Tong became a wealthy businessman with a wife, 13concubines, and a British mistress who gave birth to Grace Ho.[154][155][156]

His younger brother Robert Lee Jun-fai is a notable musician and singer, his group The Thunderbirds were famous in Hong Kong.[157][158][159] A few singles were sung mostly or all in English. Also released was Lee singing a duet with Irene Ryder.[160] Lee Jun-fai lived with Lee in Los Angeles in the United States and stayed. After Lee's death, Lee Jun-fai released an album and the single by the same name dedicated to Lee called The Ballad of Bruce Lee.[161]

With his son Brandon in 1966

While studying at the University of Washington met his future wife Linda Emery, a fellow student studying to become a teacher, whom he married in August 1964. Lee had two children with Linda: Brandon (19651993) and Shannon Lee (born 1969). Upon's Lee passing in 1973, she continued to promote Bruce Lee's martial art Jeet Kune Do. wrote the 1975 book Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew, on which the 1993 feature film Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story was based.[162] In 1989, she wrote the book The Bruce Lee Story. She retired in 2001 from the family estate.

Lee died when his son Brandon was eight years old. While alive, Lee taught Brandon martial arts and would invite him to visit sets. This gave Brandon the desire to act and went on to study the craft. As a young adult, Brandon Lee found some success acting in action orientated pictures such as Legacy of Rage (1986), Showdown in Little Tokyo (1991), and Rapid Fire (1992). In 1993, at the age of 28, Brandon Lee died after being accidentally shot by prop gun on the set of The Crow.

Lee died when his daughter Shannon was four. In her youth she studied Jeet Kune Do, under Richard Bustillo, one of her father's students. However, her serious studies did not begin until the late 1990s. To train for parts in action movies, she studied Jeet Kune Do with Ted Wong.[163]


Main article: Bruce Lee filmography


Year Title Role Notes 1969 Marlowe Winslow Wong 1971 The Big Boss Cheng Chao-an Also known as Fists of Fury 1972 Fist of Fury Chen Zhen Also known as The Chinese Connection 1972 Way of the Dragon Tang Lung Also known as Return of the Dragon 1972 Game of Death Hai Ten Filming was never completed until after 1978 1973 Enter the Dragon Lee Posthumous release 1979 The Real Bruce Lee Bruce Lee before his death Documentary with clips from early Bruce Lee movies, plus scenes with Bruce Lee imitators. 1981 Game of Death II Also known as Tower of Death. Lee died before production of the film, and his scenes were taken from his other films.


Year Title Role Notes 19661967 The Green Hornet Kato 26 episodes 19661967 Batman Kato 3 episodes 1967 Ironside Leon Soo Episode: "Tagged for Murder" 1969 Blondie Mr. Yoto Episode: "Pick on a Bully Your Own Size" 1969 Here Come the Brides Lin Episode: "Marriage Chinese Style" 19701973 Enjoy Yourself Tonight Himself 6 episodes 1971 Longstreet Li Tsung 4 episodes 1971 The Pierre Berton Show Himself


Though Bruce Lee did not appear in commercials during his lifetime, Nokia launched an internet-based campaign in 2008 with staged "documentary-looking" footage of Bruce Lee playing ping-pong with his nunchaku and also igniting matches as they are thrown towards him. The videos went viral on YouTube, creating confusion as some people believed them to be authentic footage.[164]


  • Chinese Gung-Fu: The Philosophical Art of Self Defense (Bruce Lee's first book) 1963
  • Tao of Jeet Kune Do (Published posthumously) 1973
  • Bruce Lee's Fighting Method (Published posthumously) 1978

See also

  • Bruce Lee Library
  • Bruce Lee statue in Hong Kong
  • Bruce Lee statue in Los Angeles
  • List of stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame Bruce Lee at 6933 Hollywood Blvd
  • Mostar Bruce Lee statue
  • Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story
  • The Legend of Bruce Lee
  • Bruce Lee (comics)
  • Bruceploitation


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"'Warrior': Cinemax Sets Cast & Director For Bruce Lee-Inspired Martial Arts Series". ^ Andreeva, Nellie (April 24, 2019). "'Warrior' Renewed For Season 2 By Cinemax". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 24, 2019. ^ "Inside Bruce Lee's Personal Library". ^ a b Little 1996, p.122 ^ Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey at 31m45s ^ Bolelli 2008, p.161 ^ Little 1996, p.128 ^ Lee, Bruce (1996). John Little (ed.). The Warrior Within. Martial arts-Philosophy: McGraw-Hill. ISBN0-8092-3194-8. ^ Lee, Bruce; Linda Lee Cadwell (1999). John Little (ed.). Bruce Lee Artist of Life (Book). Tuttle. pp.93116. ISBN978-0-8048-3263-2. ^ Lee, Shannon. "Bruce Lee's Poetry: Shannon Lee reads one of her father's handwritten poems". Poetry. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2012. ^ Lee, Bruce; Linda Lee Cadwell (1999). "Part 4 Poetry". In John Little (ed.). Bruce Lee Artist of Life (Book). Martial Arts: Tuttle. p.92. ISBN978-0-8048-3263-2. ^ John Little (1996). 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"The 'new Yellow Peril': How U.S. film critics reviewed Bruce Lee movies in his day". Washington Post. Retrieved November 18, 2019. ^ "Teen Scene Giving Karate a Chop". The Kingston Daily Freeman. C: 7. January 23, 1971 via Newspapers. ^ Blank, Ed (April 3, 1983). "King Of The Good Guys". The Pittsburgh Press. 99: 85 via Newspapers. ^ Murray, Steve (May 3, 1993). "Actor's new kick: family values". The Atlanta Constitution: 25 via Newspapers. ^ "Bruce Lee". Retrieved July 2, 2014. ^ "Martial Art Disciplines at Hybrid Martial Arts Academy". Hybrid Martial Art. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2008. ^ Little 1998, p.162 ^ Little 1998, p.163 ^ ??; Mandarin Pinyin: Zhenfan) Lee 1989 ^ Lee 1989, p.20 ^ Lee, Grace (1980). Bruce Lee The Untold Story. United States: CFW Enterprise. ^ a b "Kom Tong Hall at 7 Castle Road, Mid-levels, Hong Kong" (PDF). People's Republic of China. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2010. ^ "Kom Tong Hall and the Dr Sun Yat-sen Museum". People's Republic of China. January 10, 2005. Archived from the original on August 18, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2010. ^ a b Russo, Charles (May 18, 2016). "Was Bruce Lee of English Descent?". VICE Fightland. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. ^ Russo, Charles (2016). Striking Distance: Bruce Lee and the Dawn of Martial Arts in America (reprint ed.). U of Nebraska Press. p.50. ISBN978-0803290518. ^ Balling, Fredda Dudley (2017). Little, John (ed.). Words of the Dragon: Interviews, 1958-1973. Tuttle Publishing. p.35. ISBN978-1462917877. ^ Polly 2018, pp.1215. ^ Polly 2018, p.12. ^ Polly 2018, p.13. ^ Leibovitz, Liel (June 1, 2018). "Bruce Lee Was Jewish!". Tablet. Retrieved June 5, 2018. ^ Rogovoy, Seth (June 5, 2018). "Wait, Bruce Lee Was Jewish?". The Forward. Retrieved June 6, 2018. ^ Web UK Online, Bruce Lee Articles In The Shadow Of A Legend Robert Lee Remembers Bruce Lee by Steve Rubinstein Archived 30 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine ^ Trans World 60's Punk Hong Kong 60s Re-capture Archived March 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ^ Tofu An introduction to the music scene which flourished in Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore in 19641969 ^ Archived January 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Robert Lee The Thunderbirds ^ EAMS Compilation Projekt EAMS Compilation Vol. 20 Rare Raritaten ^ "ON LOCATION: Re-Enter the Dragon: A film biography of kung fu king Bruce Lee, who died almost 20 years ago, weaves martial arts action with an interracial love story". Los Angeles Times. October 25, 1992. Retrieved November 15, 2019. ^ Reid, Dr. Craig D. (1999). "Shannon Lee: Emerging From the Shadows of Bruce Lee, the Butterfly Spreads her Wings". Black Belt. 37 (10): 33. ^ Agency.Asia. "JWT Beijing and Shanghai".


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  • Bishop, James (2004). Bruce Lee: Dynamic Becoming. Dallas: Promethean Press. ISBN0-9734054-0-6.
  • Bolelli, Daniele (2008). On the Warrior's Path. Blue Snake Books. ISBN978-1-58394-219-2.
  • Campbell, Sid (2003). The Dragon and the Tiger: The Birth of Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do. 1 (illustrated ed.). Frog Books. ISBN1-58394-089-8.
  • Campbell, Sid (2006). Remembering the master (illustrated ed.). Blue Snake Books. ISBN1-58394-148-7.
  • Clouse, Robert (1988). Bruce Lee: The Biography (illustrated ed.). Unique Publications. ISBN0-86568-133-3.
  • Dennis, Felix (1974). Bruce Lee, King of Kung-Fu (illustrated ed.). Wildwood House. ISBN0-7045-0121-X.
  • Dorgan, Michael (1980). Bruce Lee's Toughest Fight. EBM Kung Fu Academy. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
  • Glover, Jesse R. (1976). Bruce Lee Between Win Chun and Jeet Kune Do. Unspecified vendor. ISBN0-9602328-0-X.
  • Lee, Bruce (1975). Tao of Jeet Kune Do (reprint ed.). Ohara Publications. ISBN0-89750-048-2.
  • Lee, Bruce (2008). M. Uyehara (ed.). Bruce Lee's Fighting Method: The Complete Edition (illustrated ed.). Black Belt Communications. ISBN978-0-89750-170-5.
  • Lee, Linda (1975a). Bruce Lee: the man only I knew. Warner Paperback Library. ISBN0-446-78774-4.
  • Lee, Linda (1989). The Bruce Lee Story. United States: Ohara Publications. ISBN0-89750-121-7.
  • Little, John (2001). Bruce Lee: Artist of Life. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN0-8048-3263-3.
  • Little, John (1996). The Warrior Within The philosophies of Bruce Lee to better understand the world around you and achieve a rewarding life (illustrated ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN0-8092-3194-8.
  • Little, John (1997). Words of the Dragon: Interviews 19581973 (Bruce Lee). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN0-8048-3133-5.
  • Little, John (1997). Jeet Kune Do: Bruce Lee's Commentaries on the Martial Way (illustrated ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN0-8048-3132-7.
  • Little, John (1997). The tao of gung fu: a study in the way of Chinese martial art. Bruce Lee Library. 2 (illustrated ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN0-8048-3110-6.
  • Little, John (1998). Bruce Lee: The Art of Expressing the Human Body. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN978-0-8048-3129-1.
  • Little, John (2002). Striking Thoughts: Bruce Lee's Wisdom for Daily Living (illustrated ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN0-8048-3471-7.
  • Polly, Matthew (2018). Bruce Lee: A Life. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN9781501187643.
  • Sharif, Sulaiman (2009). 50 Martial Arts Myths. new media entertainment ltd. ISBN978-0-9677546-2-8.
  • Thomas, Bruce (1994). Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit: a Biography. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd. ISBN1-883319-25-0.
  • Thomas, Bruce (2006). Immortal Combat: Portrait of a True Warrior (illustrated ed.). Blue Snake Books. ISBN1-58394-173-8.
  • Uyehara, Mitoshi (1993). Bruce Lee: the incomparable fighter (illustrated ed.). Black Belt Communications. ISBN0-89750-120-9.
  • Vaughn, Jack (1986). The Legendary Bruce Lee. Black Belt Communications. ISBN0-89750-106-3.
  • Y?lmaz, Yuksel (2000). Dovus Sanatlar?n?n Temel Ilkeleri. Istanbul, Turkey: Beyaz Yay?nlar?. ISBN975-8261-87-8.
  • Y?lmaz, Yuksel (2008). Jeet Kune Do'nun Felsefesi. Istanbul, Turkey: Yal?n Yay?nc?l?k. ISBN978-9944-313-67-4.

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Bruce Lee

Exclusive from the Bruce Lee Archive

Chinese Magic, book, 1960:

Bruce was an avid reader and student of everything from philosophy, world religions, spirituality, and mysticism, to self-help, strategies for business, and beyond. Much of his personal library is housed in the Bruce Lee Archive and contains a range of well-preserved large format art books to little pocket paperbacks such as this worn copy of "Chinese Magic and Superstitions in Malaya" by Leon Comber. Many of Bruce's books were annotated, highlighted, and underlined, illustrating the hours of deep thought he spent on building his philosophical perspective. Bruce's taste in books was as interesting as it was diverse and some of items in his personal library are now quite collectable. For instance, similar copies of this featured book published in 1960 have today fetched close to $800 online.

In many of Bruce's books there is an embossed logo on the title page. Notice the simple design of the logo which is an early design for the Institute that Bruce carried into his development of Jeet Kune Do.

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